A heart disorder where abnormal blood flow is initiated between the two major arteries of the heart, is termed as Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA). It occurs mainly in babies after their birth and is congenital in nature.
What is PDA in heart?
The ductus arteriosus composed of the aorta and the pulmonary artery is a significant blood vessel for circulating blood in the fetus. After the baby is born, the vessel naturally closes on its own as a part of the normal changes occurring after birth. In some newborn however, the ductus arteriosus is patent, i.e. it does not undergo the natural closure. Thus, this defect causes the leakage of the oxygenated blood from the aorta, which mixes with the blood in the pulmonary artery being poor in oxygen content. This abnormality creates pressure on the heart of the baby leading to a rise in his/her blood pressure in the lung arteries which gets congested.
If a baby is born with a normal functioning heart only with PDA symptoms, then the defect may eventually heal on its own. In some cases, however the child might need necessary treatment which includes the closure of the PDA. It has also been seen that children who are born with other heart disorders, are sometimes given medical treatment to keep the ductus arteriosus open. This helps to regulate the flow of blood until surgery is performed to restore the proper functioning of the heart.
Adult v/s Infant PDA
Normally, the ductus arteriosus closes within a span of 24 to 48 hours after birth. The muscles in the vessel wall contracts leading to this natural change. It is a rare defect found in adults as the problem gets diagnosed shortly after birth. Surgical methods are opted for to cure the abnormality at the infancy stage itself.
In adults, it is a seldom case and if found then the PDAs are small to moderate. A large PDA is generally not a common occurrence in adults. Untreated PDA in grownups might lead to shortness of breath, palpitations and other such symptoms. It might also increase the chances of the patient to contract infections related to the heart, valves or arteries. People with this defect are prone to high blood pressure, bacterial endocarditis, heart failure leading to death in certain acute cases.
In infants, PDA is a common occurrence and premature babies are often born with it. Some children are also born with heart defects along with PDA. Small PDA is hard to detect, however a large PDA might cause the baby to breathe faster than the normal. The common symptoms that occur are trouble in feeding the infants and their reduced growth. Pressure gradually gets created in the lungs due the flow of excessive blood and over time might cause permanent damage to the associated blood vessels.
How PDA Closure is done?
For a small PDA, surgery may not be required as it does not create much strain on the lungs. They often close naturally after birth with passage of time. A large PDA can be treated by surgical procedures. Catheter is inserted into the blood vessels of the leg, reaching up to the heart and the PDA. A coil is then inserted through the catheter like a plug.
If the PDA requires a surgery, then an incision is made between the ribs, on the left side of the chest. The abnormality in the ductus arteriosus is closed with a thread like material called a suture or by closing the defect permanently by placing a small metal cup around it. The recovery is quick and facilitates normal flow of blood if the baby has no other heart disorders. In majority of cases open heart surgery is not performed to cure the defect and surgical patches are placed through small incisions, ensuring easy recovery.
Cost of PDA Surgery in India
The surgical process also termed as PDA ligation is generally conducted on infants younger than 6 months, if the defect is considerably large. The PDA cost in India commences from $ 4000. The Patent Ductus Arteriosus closure device price is comparatively 60 to 70% lower in India than the other western countries. With the help of best pediatric surgeons and cardiologists along with advanced technology, India has made a remarkable growth in the field of cardiac sciences. Parents of many infants, who are born with this disorder, thus lay their trust on the medical support system for their child’s complete recovery. The low cost surgery available here however assures quality treatment and India has recorded successful PDA surgery over the years.
Top hospitals in India for PDA
India has a wide network of medical units that cater to the different needs of patients inclusive of heart disorders. Some of the leading hospitals have special pediatric units also dealing with the cardiac defects of children. These units help in aiding the treatment of children at favorable costs and also have a holistic approach to the remedial care. Some of the major hospitals in India dealing with PDA surgery are:
- Asian Heart Institute, Mumbai.
- Apollo Hospital Indraprastha, New Delhi.
- Wockhardt Hospital, Mumbai.
- Sevenhills Hospital, Mumbai.
- Narayana Health City, Bangalore.
- Medanta- The Medcity, Gurgaon.
- BGS Global Hospitals, Bangalore.
- Aster Medicity, Kochi.
- Columbia Asia, Yeshwantpur.
- Global Hospitals, Hyderabad.
Best cardiac surgeons for PDA
The doctors generally take into due consideration the child’s age, physical health, tolerance level for certain medications before commencing with the ligation. The best PDA treatment in India is rendered by efficient and experienced doctors who not only perform the surgery with utmost care but also in initiate regular and dedicated post operative remedial checkups for the baby’s quick and painless recovery.
- Dr. Krishna S Iyer (Fortis Escorts Heart Institue, New Delhi)
- Dr. Rajesh Sharma (Jaypee Hospital, Noida)
- Dr. Savitri Shrivastava (Fortis Escorts Heart Institue, New Delhi)
- Dr. Anil S R ( Aster Medcity, Kochi)
- Dr. Prashant T Upasani (Metro Hospitals Heart and Institute, Noida)
- Dr. Aseem R Srivastava (Artemis Hospital, Gurgaon)
- Dr. Smruty Rajan Mohanty (Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai)
- Dr. Sajan Koshi ( Aster Medcity, Kochi)
- Dr. Swati Garekar ( Fortis Hospital, Mumbai)
- Dr. Rahul Chandola ( Global Hospitals, Chennai)